Most common causes of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality- Sayali Kulkarni



Most common causes of Cardiovascular Disease morbidity and mortality

(1)    Ischemic Heart disease (IHD) – It contributes to 75% of global deaths and 82% of the Disability Adjusted Life Years.

IHD is also known as coronary artery disease. When the Cholesterol plaque is build up in the coronary arteries, it restricts the blood flow and oxygen supply to the heart. Which results in Ischemia. The two main symptoms of IHD are:

(a)    Angina – it is characterized by acute chest pain. It is caused by atherosclerosis which is narrowing of the coronary arteries.

(b)   Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) – It is the total occlusion of major coronary artery. It completely blocks the supply of oxygen and nutrients to cardiac muscles leading to premature death of muscle cells which ultimately leads to heart failure.

 

(2)    Stroke – It is caused by disruption of blood flow to the part of the brain. It can be either because of occlusion of blood vessel which is called ischemic stroke or because of rupture of blood vessel which is called as hemorrhagic stroke. Atrial fibrillation is one of the important risk factors for stroke.

 

(3)    Congestive Heart Failure – CHF is more common in those who have had an AMI than in those who have not. However incidence of CHF rise with the age. It is characterized by abnormalities in myocardial functions and neurohormonal regulation that results in fatigue, retention of fluids and reduced longevity.

 

(4)    Rheumatic Heart disease – It accounts for almost 3% of the total Disability Adjusted Life Years. RHD is the consequence of an acute rheumatic fever which is caused by a poor autoimmune response to group A streptococci. This mainly affects the connective tissues of joints and the heart valves. Serious consequences lead to valvular stenosis.



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