The major risk factors of CVD- Sayali Kulkarni

  The major risk factors of CVD

(1)    Lipids – Epidemiological studies show a relationship between total cholesterol and atherosclerosis. Accumulation of LDL C leads to atherosclerosis and later develops into CVD (Cardiovascular disease). However by lowering the LDL-C, a risk of CVD can be reduced. Also, High density lipoprotein cholesterol helps to remove LDL cholesterol from the arteries. Therefore, by raising the HDL-C levels, a risk of CVD can be reduced.

(2)    Hypertension - systolic and diastolic blood pressure has a continuous association with CVD. Hypertension results in stroke or myocardial infarction. However Antihypertensive therapy can be used to reduce the risk of CVD.

(3)    Smoking – smokers are at high risk of myocardial infarction or heart failure.  This risk is related to number of cigarettes smoked each day. Avoiding smoking as a preventive measure can reduce the risk of CVD.

(4)    Diabetes - Diabetes is directly associated with low HDL-C, high BP and obesity which ultimately contributes to developing a risk of CVD. Also when the blood sugar is not controlled there is high risk to develop CVD. People with diabetes have early atherosclerosis.

(5)    Physical inactivity – An inactive lifestyle leads to increased blood cholesterol, and obesity which in turn increases the risk of CHD. Whereas regular physical activities reduce the risk of CVD.

(6)    Obesity - Excess weight puts the more workload on heart. Obesity is also associated with diabetes, blood pressure, blood cholesterol. Maintaining a moderate weight can lower the risk of CVD.

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